Now it’s time to teach you one of the complicated topics of Russian grammar – Aspects of the Verb in Russian language. Unlike other websites, we don’t think that Aspects of Verb in Russian is hard to comprehend. The topic is quite easy if it’s explained in the right way. It can be logically comprehensible and memorable if you learn it step by step with passion for the Russian language. So, let’s start.
Relating to the verb, Russian language can be divided into 3 tenses: such as Present Tense, Past Tense and Future Tense. You probably already studied those articles, if not then we highly recommend you doing so. It’s quite simple to understand. It’s worth to tell that it’s simpler than anything else in Russian grammar. Tenses in Russian tell you WHEN the action happen (meaning Past, Present or Future tense). In the meantime, each of those 3 tenses is subdivided into 2 aspects indicating if it’s completed action or ongoing.
Please note: Perfective aspect is not used in Present Tense but it can be ONLY used in Past and Future tenses. This basically means that you can relax and not worry about Perfective aspect verbs in Present tense.
1. Imperfective aspect of the verb in Russian
1. Like we already mentioned above, the Present Tense is ongoing action by definition so the Imperfective aspect has to be always used in the Present Tense. In other words, Imperfective aspect stands for unfinished and ongoing actions.
Я смотрел телевизор – I was watching TV…
Ты идёшь домой рано – You are going home (by foot)…
2. Imperfective aspect is used or two or more repeated number of times (habitual).
Он пьёт водку каждый день – He is drinking vodka every day.
3. Imperfective aspect is used to specify a length of time in expressions. (All day long, for 4 weeks, for decade, etc.)
Она спала около семи (7) часов – She slept for about seven (7) hours.
Я ехал домой целый день – I drove home the whole day.
Little note: Some verbs in Russian language have the beginning “про” which may be an exception to this rule. (проспать – to oversleep, проехать – to drive past by, etc.)
4. Imperfective aspect may be used in expressions of the state of something, rather than an action.
Мы видели самолёт – We saw the airplane.
Мы были дома – We have been at home.
5. Imperfective aspect is used for actions which don’t mean the result.
Мой друг Сергей вечером играл в шахматы, а я в это время наблюдал за ним. – My friend Sergey played chess in the evening, and I watched him at that time. (There is no any specific result).
2. Perfective aspect of the verb in Russian
This is simple as it is. Perfective aspect means completed and accomplished action. Where the verb has a second conjugation (Perfective) form.
Я полюбил тебя с первого взгляда – I loved you at first sight (I fell in love with you at the first sight)
3. The difference between Perfective and Imperfective Aspects of the verb
Perfective and Imperfective verbs can have equal vocabulary meaning. To form Perfective verbs you usually add prefix or change suffix in Imperfective verbs. Some Perfective verbs are formed by changing emphasize (accent) in Imperfective verb so the meaning stays the same but it denotes whether it’s completed action or ongoing. Here are some examples of Perfective and Imperfective Aspect verbs with insights of changes for each of the verb.
prefixes Прочитать /Вычитать
stem change Посадить
Plant, set, seat, put
stem change Поймать
stem change Сказать
To say, tell
stem change Положить
To put (on)
To wash, erase, delete
To cut off
You can also form Imperfective verbs from Perfective verbs by using such suffixes: –ыва, –ива, –а, –ва.
To recalculate, recount
To swing, shake
To spread (out)
To poor (to), add (to)
Of course, this topic is not an easy one but with practicing Perfective and Imperfective Aspects of the verbs you can achieve fluency in Russian language.
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